1) Does the PPPA sell posters? No. The PPPA never sells any posters or reproductions of posters. The PPPA is a strictly educational site and does not engage in any commercial or merchandising activities whatsoever.
Note: Many, if not most, of the posters featured at this site fall into rare, out-of-print or limited edition categories and are no longer available. Libraries and museums catalog posters as "graphic ephemera" because they are fragile works-on-paper vulnerable to a host of threats such as moisture, direct sunlight, mold, ink-to-paper chemistry and vandalism, among others. As such they usually have very short lives and often disappear completely soon after being printed.
There are several distributors, such as Resistance Art, CafePress and Sambar Pins who sell Palestine posters and/or Palestine-poster related materials. Palestine posters from the Zionist wellspring can sometimes be purchased via auction houses, such as Swann Galleries and Kedem Auction House, LTD., or from specialized dealers such as Farkash Gallery as well as on Ebay. Chilshom-Larsson Gallery sells Palestine posters originating from several Wellsprings. Alamy sells photos of Palestine posters carried at political demonstrations and rallies as well as Palestine solidarity murals and posters reproduced as street art. Check the internet for additional sources.
If an artist, for example Doug Minkler, or publisher makes copies of a poster available commercially, or as a free download, the PPPA lists the contact information at the poster's page in Related Links or in a Curator's Note. If there is no link or note this indicates that we do not have any additional information.
2) Does the PPPA ever provide written or implied permission/authorization to use image(s) found at the PPPA site?
No. The PPPA never, for any reason, issues copyright authorizations or permissions or signs any usage documents or approves any contracts of any kind - implicit, explicit, verbal, written, etc.
There are no exceptions to this rule.
The PPPA does not own any copyrights nor does it seek them. Parties wishing to use an image(s) from the PPPA site must do their own research and come to their own conclusions vis-a-vis the advisability/legality of using any image. The PPPA plays no part in that process and responsibilty for any use lies completely with the parties considering reproduction.
The information listed at any given page represents the sum total of the PPPA's data: if there is no artist's name or link to an artist's web site or publisher's home page that means we do not have it.
Note: Many contemporary publishers/authors reasonably seek to protect themselves from future legal challenges by practicing due diligence and seek either an artist's or a publisher's written permission to use a particular graphic or graphics. This is a very good idea and all users of the PPPA site seeking copyright/permission should be alert to future complications.
Relative to the images/graphics at this site there are several points to bear in mind:
1) The PPPA is not the place to acquire any copyrights/permissions/authorizations. (This includes Liberation Graphics and any/all other components of the PPPA)
2) Many, if not most of the posters featured at the PPPA were designed/printed/distributed by agencies that no longer exist and/or which never considered placing them under copyright. Efforts to gain such authorization, even from entities that still do exist, will likely be challenging at the very least. This is due to any number of reasons but "propaganda" posters traditionally do not fall neatly into contemporary legal/copyright/publishing/corporate templates and norms. Political poster publishers were/are often engaged in war, revolution, occupation, domestic political conflict and a host of other existential tensions that make the idea of copyright, i.e., the idea of limiting distribution and complicating wider dissemination of the image/message of their posters, incomprehensible to them. This likely explains why among the fourteen thousand-plus posters now on view there is not a single copyright symbol featured from any publisher or source. Political publishers want the public to reproduce their art, images and slogans. Contemporary commercial, academic and media-oriented authors and publishers see things very differently as they are focussed on protecting their commercial interests or reputational capital and shielding themselves against future litigation or infringement complications.
Contemporary publishers must make the decision to use images from the PPPA independently, based entirely on their own research and reading of "fair use" principles, as well as any others that may apply.
3) In those cases where the poster/art in question was not published by a political/military agency but rather is the work of a living artist who may rely upon commercial sales, such as Mohammed Hamza of Intifada Street, it behooves interested publishers to contact those artists (or their estates/agents) directly. If PPPA has contact information for a poster's artist or agent it is listed: If there is no "Related Link" this means we do not have it and we urge all parties to conduct their own independent research.
3) What is the PPPA's policy regarding the removal of a poster page? The PPPA never, for any reason, removes a poster page from its site. There are no exceptions to this policy.
4) What does the PPPA do with its duplicate posters? The PPPA donates many of its duplicate Palestine posters to cultural and educational institutions such as the Library of Congress, Georgetown University, the Center for Palestine Studies at Columbia University and the British Museum. Duplicates are frequently traded with private individuals as well as other archives and libraries.
5) I would like to ask the PPPA a question about a specific poster. What is the best way to go about that? Always include the complete URL for the poster you want to discuss. The URL, the "uniform resource locator" is the long address at the top of the page that begins with "http:www....". Please don't send us poster titles, thumbnails or textual discriptions as we cannot find posters using these methods.
6) I'd like to contribute a Palestine poster to the PPPA. What is best way to go about that? The best way to start the process is to send in some in-focus digital images of the poster(s) via the Submit Poster form at the top of the PPPA website. Cell telephone photos are fine for this application.
7) What are the policies of the PPPA regarding non-commercial, educational use of posters images? The PPPA operates according to the principles of "fair use". According to fair use principles, an author may make limited use of another author's work without asking for permission. Fair use is based on the belief that the public is entitled to freely use portions of copyrighted materials for non-commercial educational purposes, commentary and criticism. If you wish to use a graphic featured at the PPPA for non-commerical/educational purposes (either print or electronic media) we ask that:
1) If known, the artist's full name and nationality, as well as the name of the original publisher and date, be credited. This can be done by printing the info under the image of the poster or wherever in/on the published document credits are listed.
2) "The Palestine Poster Project Archives (PPPA)" be credited in full as the source of the image/info/poster
3) A review copy of the final printed or electronic document be sent to the PPPA at the time of publication for inclusion in the PPPA website.
Fair use as described at 17 U.S.C. Section 107: "Notwithstanding the provisions of section 106 and 106A, the fair use of a copyrighted work, including such use by reproduction in copies or phono-records or by any other means specified by that section, for purposes such as criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching (including multiple copies for classroom use), scholarship, or research, is not an infringement of copyright." In determining whether the use made of a work in any particular case is fair use the factors to be considered shall include the:
1) Purpose and character of the use, including whether such use is of a commercial nature or is for nonprofit/educational purposes
2) Nature of the copyrighted work
3) Amount and substantiality of the portion used in relation to the copyrighted work as a whole
4) Effect of the use upon the potential market or value of the copyrighted work
Some of the ways the PPPA comports with fair use principles:
* Small, low resolution jpegs are used exclusively at the site
* In all cases where known publishers' contact information is provided
* In all cases where known the original artist is credited
* The PPPA never sells any posters or reproductions of posters
* The PPPA does not distort or crop any posters featured at the site. If necessary it may manipulate files for size, clarity and orientation.
Note: Most, if not all, of the posters in the Palestine poster genre were originally published as works of "propaganda." As such few, if any, ever carried copyright symbols as this would have inhibited dissemination and worked against the core principles of propaganda. None of the posters at the PPPA feature copyright symbols. The PPPA stipulates that it does not own, nor does it seek, the copyright to any of the posters featured at this site.
8) What is so important about Palestine posters? The Palestine poster tradition offers an exceptional perspective on the history of modern Palestine and is, simultaneously, a much under-valued component of its cultural heritage. The posters themselves are important repositories of primary data. They provide a unique lens through which audiences can gain insight into the attitudes and aspirations of people directly involved in the contemporary history of Palestine, as they have experienced it and recorded it in graphic art.
9) What exactly is a “Palestine poster”? The five-part definition used by the Palestine Poster Project Archives to define a Palestine poster is any poster:
1) With the word “Palestine” in it, in any language, from any source or time period
2) Created or published by any artist or agency claiming Palestinian nationality or Palestinian participation
3) Published in the geographical territory of historic Palestine, at any point in history, including contemporary Israel
4) Published by any source which relates directly to the social, cultural, political, military, economic or iconographic history of Palestine or Palestinian nationalism
5) Related to Zionism or anti-Zionism in any language, from any source, published after August 31, 1897
10) Does the Palestine Poster Project Archives exclusively house posters created/published/distributed by Palestinian artists or agencies? No. As indicated in items 1, 3, 4, and 5 in the the question above the artists and/or publshers can be of any nationality.
11) What is the significance of August 31, 1897, used in Definition 5? This is the date that concluded the First Zionist Conference—the inaugural meeting, chaired by Theodor Herzl, of the Zionist Organization (later known as the World Zionist Organization). A platform was adopted at this conference, known as the Basel Program, which included the following language: "Zionism aims at establishing for the Jewish people a publicly and legally assured home in Palestine. For the attainment of this purpose, the Congress considers the following means serviceable:
1) The promotion of the settlement of Jewish agriculturists, artisans, and tradesmen in Palestine
2) The federation of all Jews into local or general groups, according to the laws of the various countries
3) The strengthening of the Jewish feeling and consciousness
4) Preparatory steps for the attainment of those governmental grants which are necessary to the achievement of the Zionist purpose."
Today’s contest over the geographical territory of historic Palestine dates directly back to this conference. Zionist posters have been created to operationalize the Basel Program and its founding ideology, and many Palestine posters have been created either in defense of or in opposition to that platform and ideology. Thus, 1897 is the authentic starting point for the study of the Zionist-Palestinian conflict and the content of Palestine Poster Project Archives.
12) Why does the name of the fourth Wellspring include both the words “Zionist” and “Israeli”? Aren’t they the same thing? No. A “Zionist” is a person who embraces political Zionism, the ideology championed by Theodor Herzl. An “Israeli” is a citizen of Israel (though not necessarily a "national"). Many Israelis are not Zionists, and many Zionists, such as Christian Zionists, are neither Israeli or Jewish. Moreover, approximately twenty percent of the population of Israel, just under two million people, are neither Jewish or Zionists but rather Palestinians, who may be Muslim or Christian. They are considered citizens of Israel for the purpose of issuing travel documents, taxation or other governmental functions but do not serve in the military and are generally prohibited from working for the Israeli government. For more information about the term Zionism and its importance, see the monograph, Antonym/Synonym: The Poster Art of the Palestinian/Israeli Conflict
13) Aren’t there clear differences in the posters created by Palestinian nationalists and their allies and those created by Zionists? Yes. The Palestine Poster Project Archives recognizes such differences. The site’s taxonomy enables viewers to select posters for viewing by source, or Wellspring:
Palestinian Nationalist Artists/Agencies
Zionist and Israeli Artists/Agencies
14) Why do all these posters have to be presented together at one site? The core objective of the Archives is to make the history of the Zionist/Palestinian conflict fully accessible and comprehensible to American educators and students. Organizing all works from all four Wellsprings into what is in fact a unity obviates the gratuitous complexities that emerge when posters related to a common theme - Palestine - are arbitrarily and randomly categorized by librarians, archivists, publishers and others under terms as varied as, but not limited to, these examples:
Disputed Territories/Judaea and Samaria/Occupied Territories/West Bank
Eretz Israel/Jewish State/New Jerusalem/Yishuv
Historic Palestine/Holy Land/Promised Land/Terre Sante
Levant/Middle East/Moyen Orient/Near East/Orient/Proche-Orient
By co-presenting Palestine posters from the four Wellsprings at one location in a non-privileging format a new historical genre emerges: the Palestine poster. This aggregation facilitates rather than complicates the work of students, teachers, journalists and other seekers of information related to modern Palestine.
15) Who “owns” the PPPA? The historical, political, artistic and cultural content and context of the PPPA belongs to the indigenous people of Palestine, the Palestinians. I, Dan Walsh, own the PPPA website as well as print copies of many of the posters featured at the website. However, I do not own any of the copyrights nor do I seek them.
16) What are the long-term plans for the Archives? Ideally, the Archives, that is the physical and printed copies of the Palestine posters that I own, and all the related materials – books, catalogs, newspaper articles, reviews, the digital Archives, etc., will one day be permanently established in Palestinian national space. This is as it should be and this is as I would like it to be. This unique Palestinian heritage resource should not be the property of any individual and should be housed in Palestine for posterity.
17) Does the PPPA ever lend/loan out its original copies for inclusion in exhibits/retrospectives? No. The PPPA never, under any circumstances, ever lends/loans out any of the original posters in the Archives. This is a non-negotiable policy. There are a number of excellent reasons for adopting this inflexible policy, mostly having to do with the time and expense involved in the effort and also the complexity of the tracking/insurance process. On the other hand, one of the many benefits of the digital revolution is that the digital scans of many of the PPPA's original posters are available and allow for curators, archivists, activists and others to re-print full size copies of the original posters without exposing the originals to the travails of shipping, handling, display, framing, etc.